Can I get a user’s manual for CFS programs?
Can I have my programs delivered on CD?
How do I contact CFS for technical support?
Quick Reference Guide is discontinued
Where can I get help for Fill-N-Print?
Why can't I order forms and envelopes over the phone?
Why didn’t you tell me to renew my programs?
Why do I need a MyCFS account?
Why does CFS no longer send renewal packets?
Does CFS carry the form to set up Section 125 health plan for an employer?
Does CFS have a penalty and interest calculator?
Display additional client information in the Client List
Filter/Sort Client List
Purge Deleted Clients
Set Client Codes
CSV Import Guidelines
Can my data automatically backup to the cloud?
Data Locations (Default)
Export Client List
Generic ASCII File Client List
How do I back up/restore my data?
How do I backup to and restore from a CD or DVD?
How do I configure automatic backup?
How do I find missing backup data?
How do I move CFS programs and data to a new computer?
How do I move CFS programs and data to a new server?
How do I send client data to a colleague via email?
Importing from non-consecutive program years
Importing/Exporting Client Data
Lacerte Client List
Manually Importing Client Data From The Previous Year
ProSystem Client List
Why does Financial Planning Tools indicate restore database is being shared?
Why is the program not automatically backing up?
Can I install CFS programs on a Mac?
Downloading the installer to a USB flash drive to transfer it to an offline computer
Entering Data at a Client's Office
How To Download And Install Software From The CFS Website
How do I download and install an update from within the program?
How do I download and install the single user version of a program?
How do I install a program or update in "safe mode?"
How do I install programs from CD?
How do I manually download and install an update?
How do I map a network drive?
How do I perform a network installation?
How do I perform a workstation setup?
Install Procedure - Add private database
Install Procedure - Continue private database next year
Installing in demo mode
Manual installation of a specific program from a CD
Reinstalling and repairing software
Where to download CFS software
Why aren't all the programs I ordered on the CD?
Why does my desktop shortcut open the installer?
Why does the setup tell me to reboot the computer?
Workstation setup locations
Do I need a network license?
How do I change my address or firm name?
How do I edit my license code/firm information?
How does my license code work?
How many computers am I licensed for?
Using a License Code to access a program
What is the purpose of a network license?
Where can I find my Customer ID number?
Where can I find my license code?
Why can't I call to update my firm name/address?
Why does my license code change?
Why does the installer tell me my license code is invalid?
Add, edit, or delete a network user
CFS Program Interface
Calendar and Notes
Label Setup Options
Selecting multiple clients
Data File List
Federal/State Tax Planner
Field Details for Numeric Fields
Form 2848 - Power of Attorney
Formatting a field for SSN or EIN
How do I print to a PDF?
Two ways to print from a module
Using the Editor
CA Sales Tax Preparer
MD Personal Property
NY Sales Tax Preparer
Small Business Tools
1099 E-Filing Module Overview
1099 E-Filing Step 1: Inputting Transmitter Data
1099 E-Filing Step 2: Create IRS file
1099 E-Filing Step 3: IRS Submittal
1099 E-Filing Step 4: Create state file
1099 E-Filing Step 5: State Submittal
1099 E-Filing: Checking file status
1099 E-Filing: Filing Corrections
1099 E-Filing: Navigating the IRS FIRE System Website
1099 E-Filing: submitting prior year files
Applying for a Transmitter Control Code (TCC)
Checking Size of Uploaded File
Creating an IRS FIRE account
Does CFS support the Combined Federal/State Filing program?
FIRE System Upload: Navigating to your File
IRS seeks to lower e-filing threshold
Printing Summaries and Reports
Uploading 1099 files to CA SWIFT website
CA Form FTB 6274 - Waiver Request From Filing Information Returns Electronically
CA Form FTB 6274A - Extension Request to File Information Returns Electronically
Form 4419 - Application for Filing Information Returns Electronically
Form 8508 - Request for Waiver From Filing Information Returns Electronically
Payroll Return E-filing
941 E-Filing Module Overview
94x E-Filing Common Problems
94x E-Filing Step 1: Create Submission Files
94x E-Filing Step 2: Create Transmission Files
94x E-Filing Step 3: Upload File
94x E-Filing Step 4: Check Ack File
Fixing rejected files
Modifying Your IRS E-file Application to E-file Forms 94x
Opening the E-File Federal Employment Tax Returns module
Requirements to E-File Forms 94x
Submit a Communications Test File
CA Bulk Payment Record
CA Form DE 9C - e-Services Import a CSV File
CA Forms DE 9 and DE 9C
NYS-45/NYS-1 - E-filing (Web Upload Files)
New York E-filing Overview
Online State UI Filing Support
Online UI Filing Support from the State UI Form Module
PA UC-2/2A - UCMS FTP or File Upload Support
Texas C3/C4 Employer's Quarterly Report
Applying for a Business Services Online Account
BSO Request access to the SSA Services Suite for Employers
W-2 E-Filing Step 1: Providing Submitter Data
W-2 E-Filing Step 2: Creating an SSA File
W-2 E-Filing Step 3: SSA Submittal
W-2 E-Filing Step 4: Create State File
W-2 E-Filing Step 5: State Submittal
W-2 E-Filing: Checking the Submission Status
W-2 E-Filing: Navigating the SSA's Business Services Online Website
W-2 E-Filing: Navigating the SSA's old Wage File Upload program (Resubmitting a W2 Wage File)
W2 E-Filing Module Overview
Creating Form 8809 Extension files
E-File Format Error W2 and 1099
E-Filing: Copying and pasting file name and path
E-Filing: Create a Cover Letter
FIRE System login changes
Handling omitted payees when 1099's or W-2's are added after transmission
IRS FIRE System is down for maintenance for a month every winter
Is the IRS website down?
"The current license code does not allow access..."
Do W-2, W-3, 1099, or 1096 forms need to be printed on red forms or on plain paper in black ink?
Does CFS support WA Cares Fund for Long Term Care benefits?
Finding a report of how many forms were prepared
Hourly rate is updated but Payroll System is still calculating at old rate
How Do I ... ?
How do I fix a duplicate reporting?
Printing SSA-approved, black scannable W-2 forms
Printing SSA-approved, black scannable W-3 forms
The modules in W2/1099 are in red text instead of black text
When will Form 940 be released?
When will my program be released (or when will it be updated)?
Where is the 4th Quarter 941 module?
Where's my W2/1099 program?
General (used in all 4 program parts)
Copy Employee/Recipient Info to Another Form
Copy Employee/Recipient to Another Client
Export Information Returns to CSV File
Export State Employee Wage Listing
Export client list to Excel
Import last year's 1095-B/1095-C As Is
Import prior year clients/payees/preparers/labels
Importing CSV files into Payroll System
Importing payroll or 1099 data from Excel
Merge different employees into an employer
Move employee/recipient to another client
Payroll System QuickBooks Import
Transfer Payroll Data to W-2
Transfer Vendor Payment Data to CA Form 592-B
Transfer W-2 data to W-2c from current or prior years
Payroll System Database Reconstruction
Repair Client Database
Special Database Recovery Detail Instructions
Special Database Recovery Overview
Affordable Care Act: Notice to Employee of Coverage Options
CA Form DE 1 - Commercial Employer Account Registration and Update Form
CA Form DE 1 HW - Employers of Household Workers Registration and Update Form
CA Form DE 1245W - E-File and E-Pay Mandate Waiver Request
CA Form DE 2251A - Affidavit of Mailing
CA Form DE 34 - Report of New Employee(s)
CA Form DE 4 - Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate
CA Form DE 48 - Power of Attorney
CA Form DE 542 - Report of Independent Contractor(s)
CA Form DE 89 - Employer of Household Worker Election Notice
Fax Transmission Cover Sheet
Florida Form RTS-3, Employer Account Change Form
Form 1094-B / 1095-B
Form 1094-C / 1095-C
Form 2848 - Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative
Form 8809, Application for Extension of Time To File Information Returns
Form 8821, Tax Information Authorization
Form 8822-B - Change of Address - Business
Form 8952 - Application for Voluntary Classification Settlement Program (VCSP)
Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification
Form SS-4 - Application for Employer Identification Number
Form W-4 - Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate
Form W-9 - Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification
NY Form DTF-95 - Business Tax Account Update
NY Form DTF-96 - Report of Address Change for Business Tax Accounts
NY Form POA-1 - Power of Attorney
NY Form TR-2000 - E-ZRep Tax Information Access and Transaction Authorization Form
Paycheck Withholding Calculator
Statement of Account
To Do List
Withholding Tax Rate Tables
Program Operation and Utilities
Adding employers and payers to the Client List
Client List Options
Client Status Fields
Create a copy of a client
Deleting an employee or a form
Firm/License Information Screen
Import Prior Year W-2/1099 for E-filing Purposes
Network Utilities (Network Version Only)
Payroll Client Folder
Payroll Client List
Payroll Firm/License Information Screen
Payroll Getting Started
Payroll Label/Envelope Maker
Payroll Module Interface
Payroll Module Library
Payroll System Overview
Restore Backed-Up Data
Restore Deleted Clients
Payroll (ATF and Live)
Blank Check Setup
Check Printing Supplies
Creating a local rate schedule file
Direct Deposit in LivePayroll
Gross-up for All Taxes and Deductions
Live Payroll Setup utility
LivePayroll vs. After-the-Fact Payroll
Print Payroll Checks or stubs
Setting up a progressive or rate schedule tax
Setting up employee withholding
Setting up employers and employees in LivePayroll
Setting up hourly employees
Setting up local withholding tax
Setting up vacation & sick leave
Typical Examples of Vacation/Sick Leave Policy Settings for Hourly and Salaried Employees
Vacation and Sick Leave in LivePayroll
Vacation/Sick Leave Employee Setup
Vacation/Sick Leave Overview
Vacation/Sick Leave Policy Setup
Vendor Check Utilities
Workers' Compensation Information
Workers' Compensation Report Setup
Workers' Compensation Setup
Arizona AZFSET Web File for Withholding Return Filing
Arizona Form A1-APR - Annual Payment Withholding Tax Return
Arizona Form A1-QRT/A1-WP - Quarterly Withholding Tax Return
Arizona Form UC-018/020 Quarterly Unemployment Tax and Wage Report
Arizona Forms A1-R - Annual Withholding Reconciliation Return
CA EDD e-Services File Attachment
CA Form 592 - Resident and Nonresident Withholding Statement
CA Form 592-B - Resident and Nonresident Withholding Tax Statement
CA Form DE 3B HW - Employer of Household Worker(s) Quarterly Report of Wages and Withholdings
CA Form DE 3HW - Employer of Household Worker(s) Annual Payroll Tax Return
CA Form DE 88 - Payment Coupon
CA Form DE 9 - Quarterly Contribution Return and Report of Wages
CA Form DE 9C - Quarterly Contribution Return and Report of Wages (Continuation)
CO Form DR 1094 - Colorado W-2 Wage Withholding Tax Return
CO Form DR 1107 - 1099 Income Withholding Tax Return
CO Form UITR-1 - Your Quarterly Report of Wages Paid and Premiums Owed
CT Form CT-941 - Employer Quarterly Reconciliation of Withholding
CT Form CT-W3 – Connecticut Annual Reconciliation of Withholding
CT Form UC-2/5A/5B - Employer Contribution Return and Quarterly Earnings Report
CT UC-2/5A/5B - FTP File Upload Support
FL Form RT-6 - Electronic Filing Instructions
FL Form RT-6 - Florida Quarterly Reemployment Compensation and Wage Report
FL Form RT-6 Electronic Filing Error Codes
Form 8453 - Employment Tax Declaration for an IRS e-file Return
Form 8655 - Reporting Agent Authorization
Form 8655 Reporting Agent List
Form 8879 - IRS e-file Signature Authorization
Form 940 - Employer's Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return
Form 941 - Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return
Form 943 - Employer's Annual Tax Return for Agricultural Employees
Form 944 - Employer's Annual Federal Tax Return
Form 945 - Annual Return of Withheld Federal Income Tax
Generic State Quarterly Unemployment Compensation and Wage Report
Georgia Form DOL-4N – Employer's Quarterly Tax and Wage Report
Georgia Form G-7 – Employer’s Quarterly Return For Monthly Payers and Voucher GA-V
Georgia Form G-7 – Employer’s Quarterly Return For Quarterly Payers
IL Form UI-3/40 - Employer's Contribution and Wage Report
IL Forms IL-941/IL-501 - Employer's Quarterly Withholding Income Tax Return
Instructions for Completing Employer Payroll Form WR-30
MD Forms DLLR/DUI 15/16 - Maryland Unemployment Insurance Quarterly Contribution and Employment Reports
MD MW506/MW506M - Employer's Return of Income Tax Report
MD MW508 - Annual Employer Withholding Reconciliation Return
MI Form 5080 - Sales, Use and Withholding Taxes Monthly/Quarterly Return (and Form 5095)
MI Form 5081 - Sales, Use and Withholding Taxes Annual Return
MI UIA 1028 - Employer's Quarterly Wage/Tax Report
Missouri Form MO-941 – Employer's Return of Income Taxes Withheld
Missouri Form MODES-4 – Quarterly Contribution and Wage Report
NC Web File Upload for Form NC-3
NJ-927 and WR-30 E-Filing Acknowledgement File
Nevada Form RPT3795/NEW0098 – Employer's Quarterly Contribution and Wage Report
New Jersey Form NJ-927/NJ-927-W and Form WR-30 E-Filing
New Jersey Form NJ-927/NJ-927-W/WR-30, Employer's Quarterly Report
New York Form MTA-305, Employer's Quarterly Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Mobility Tax Return
New York Form NYS-1, Return of Tax Withheld
New York Form NYS-45, Quarterly Combined Withholding, Wage Reporting and Unemployment Insurance Return
North Carolina Form NCUI-101, Employer's Quarterly Tax and Wage Report
North Carolina Withholding Forms
Payroll Deposit Records
Pennsylvania Form UC-2 – Employer's Report for Unemployment Compensation
South Carolina Form WH-1601, Withholding Tax Coupon
South Carolina Form WH-1605, SC Withholding Quarterly Tax Return
South Carolina Form WH-1606, SC Withholding Fourth Quarter/Annual Reconciliation
TN Form LB-0456/0851, Quarterly Unemployment Premium and Wage Report
Texas Forms C-3/C-4, Employer's Quarterly Report
UT Form 33H - File Upload Instructions
UT Form TC-941-E - File Upload Instructions
Utah Form 33H/33HA, Utah Employer Quarterly Wage List and Contribution Report
Utah Form TC-941-E, Utah Withholding Return
Utah Form TC-941PC, Payment Coupon for Utah Withholding Tax
VA Web Upload for Return Filing
Virginia Forms VA-5, VA-6, VA-15, VA-16
Virginia Forms VEC-FC-20/21 – Employer's Quarterly Tax Report
Washington State Form F212-055-000 - Quarterly Report for Industrial Insurance
Washington State Forms 5208A and 5208B, Employer's Quarterly Tax and Wage Detail Reports
Wisconsin Form UCT-101 and UC-7823-E, Quarterly Contribution Report and Quarterly Wage Report
Program Operation and Utilities
Add FUTA Only Adjustment
Add State UI Adjustment
Adding or editing vendors
Auto – Personal Use
Choose between entering paychecks by payee or by date
Cost of Employer Sponsored Health Coverage
Custom Payroll Journal
Customizing the Payroll Data Grid with the Options button
Entering vendor payments
Gross-up for Employer Paid FICA
Gross-up for Employer Paid FICA and CA SDI
Health Insurance Compensation for 2% Owners of S-Corps
Health Savings Account (HSA)
New Jersey Payroll Setup
Opening the Payroll Data Grid
Payroll Data Grid shortcuts
Reordering the columns on the Payroll Data Grid
S Corp Paid Medical Insurance
Setting up paycheck items
Show/Hide Payee Info in Payroll Data Grid
CA Form DE 678 - Tax and Wage Adjustment
CA Form DE 9ADJ - Quarterly Contribution and Wage Adjustment Form
Form 941-X – Adjusted Employer's QUARTERLY Federal Tax Return or Claim for Refund
Form 943-X – Adjusted Employer's ANNUAL Federal Tax Return for Agricultural Employees or Claim for Refund
Form 944-X – Adjusted Employer's ANNUAL Federal Tax Return or Claim for Refund
Form 945-X – Adjusted Annual Return of Withheld Federal Income Tax or Claim for Refund
Form W-2c and W-3c
New York Form NYS-45-X, Amended Quarterly Combined W/H, Wage Reporting and UI Return
AZ Form A1-T - Withholding Transmittal of Wage and Tax Statements
CFS Form Order Worksheet
CO Form DR 1093 - Annual Transmittal of State W-2 Forms
CO Form DR 1106 - Annual Transmittal of State 1099 Forms
CT Form CT-1096 – Connecticut Annual Summary and Transmittal of Information Returns
CT Form CT-W3 or CT-1096- CSV File Upload Instructions
DE Form W3 - Annual Withholding Reconciliation Statement (for e-file only)
DE W3 - CSV File Upload Instructions
Form 1096 - Annual Summary and Transmittal of US Information Returns
Form 1098 - Mortgage Interest Statement
Form 1098-T - Tuition Statement
Form 1099-A - Acquisition or Abandonment of Secured Property
Form 1099-B - Proceeds From Broker and Barter Exchange Transactions
Form 1099-C - Cancellation of Debt
Form 1099-DIV - Dividends and Distributions
Form 1099-INT - Interest Income
Form 1099-MISC - Miscellaneous Information
Form 1099-NEC - Nonemployee Compensation
Form 1099-PATR - Proceeds from Broker and Barter Exchange Transactions
Form 1099-R - Distributions From Pensions, etc.
Form 1099-S - Proceeds From Real Estate Transactions
Form 1099-SA - Distributions from an HSA, Archer MSA, or Medicare Advantage MSA
Form W-2 and W-3
Form W-2G - Certain Gambling Winnings
GA Form G-1003 - CSV File Upload Instructions
GA Form G-1003 – Income Statement Return
ID Form 967 -Idaho Annual Withholding Report
MO Form MO W-3 - Transmittal of Tax Statements
NJ Form NJ-W-3 - Reconciliation of Tax Withheld
North Carolina Form NC-3, Annual Withholding Reconciliation
OR Form OR-WR- Electronic Filing Instructions
Ohio IT 3, Transmittal of W-2 and 1099-R Statements
Oregon Form OR-WR – Annual Withholding Tax Reconciliation Report
PA Form REV-1667 - Annual Withholding Reconciliation Statement
PA Form REV-1667 - CSV File Upload Instructions
South Carolina Form WH-1612 – Transmittal Form for W-2s or 1099s Submitted by CD-ROM or Paper
West Virginia Form WV/IT-103 - Withholding Year End Reconciliation
Program Operation and Utilities
Client password protection
Customize how a Client's Files are listed
Filtering clients based on the selected Toolbox
Integrated knowledge base
Managing inactive clients
Removing client password protection
Search for clients, client's files, and tools
Set automatic backup frequency
Switching products using the Toolbox pulldown
Change screen font size
Connecting to an Existing Network Database
Creating a new network database
Firm Information Screen
How do I add email addresses or usernames for other users to grant them access to TaxTools WorkShop?
Importing clients from a CSV file
Importing clients from other CFS software into TaxTools WorkShop
Importing from Lacerte
Introduction to TaxTools WorkShop
Rolling over client data
Running TaxTools WorkShop in the Windows Notification Area
Setting: Application Mode
Switching Between Single-User Mode and Network Mode
Using an email address to access a program
Automatically extend subscriptions
Buying a subscription
Network upgrades and additional users
Partial-month subscription credit
"Offline mode has expired"
Error: "An internet connection was not found"
Error: "The program cannot connect to the CFS server"
Licensed software is stuck in demo mode
Troubleshooting internet connectivity
User Account Control (UAC) message: "Do you want to allow this app to make changes to your device?"
"Download failed" error
"Error 9 Subscript Out Of Range" when trying to 'Add/Edit Payroll Data'
"Exceeded maximum amount" with respect to Social Security and CA SDI withholdings
"Not Saved" message when saving Firm Information
"Not saved" message when entering or exiting program
"OCX File Missing" or "OCX File Not Registered" error after updating Windows
"Small Fonts and Sans Serif can't be found" when Starting Program
"The feature you are trying to use..."
"This client is currently locked by another user. Access is denied."
"Unable to open infobase"
After installation the desktop shortcut icon is wrong
An error occurred during the move data process: -214...
CD install fails with message "Previous installation not found"
CFS Setup runs another vendor's installer
CFSSTRT: Program <File Name> was not Found in Folder <Folder Name> - Install may be Necessary
Change printers in Windows 10
Change printers in Windows 7
Component Not Registered or Component Missing error
Error 1004: Error Accessing Database
Error 105: The transmission was unsuccessful
Error 12007 "Name not resolved" on Update from the Web
Error 12029 "Cannot Connect" on Update from the Web
Error 12031 when Downloading
Error 16 when Printing Form
Error 1706: No valid source could be found for product ( ). The Windows Installer cannot continue.
Error 2018: Page margins are too large, can't run report
Error 2019 when Printing Report
Error 3022 in Payroll System
Error 3031 when Restoring Payroll Data
Error 3045 in Payroll System
Error 3049 in Payroll System
Error 3050 in Payroll System
Error 3051 in Payroll System Network Installation
Error 3051 when Restoring Payroll Data
Error 3051: The Microsoft Jet database engine cannot open the file...
Error 3075 in Payroll System
Error 3112 in Payroll System
Error 32765 when printing
Error 3343 in Payroll System
Error 339 "File is not correctly registered" During Install
Error 339: CSCMD32.OCX etc failed to self-register
Error 339: THREED32.OCX is not correctly registered
Error 339: VSSPELL6.OCX failed to self-register
Error 339: component missing or not properly registered
Error 3421 when Restoring Data
Error 35756 when Starting Program
Error 35761 when Attempting to Update
Error 35764 when Attempting to Update
Error 3633 when Starting Payroll System
Error 3800 in Payroll System
Error 380: Invalid property value
Error 381: Invalid property array index
Error 400: Form already displayed; can't show modally
Error 429 when Printing Form
Error 429: ActiveX component cannot create object
Error 429: You don't have an appropriate license to use this functionality
Error 480: Can't create AutoRedraw image
Error 482 when Trying to Print
Error 484 when Trying to Print
Error 48: Trouble loading DLL
Error 5001 on Installation
Error 5003 during Print Preview
Error 52: Bad file name or number
Error 53: File Not Found
Error 5: Invalid procedure call
Error 63 and Error 380
Error 6: Overflow
Error 7 when Starting Program
Error 70: Permission Denied
Error 75: Path/File Access Error
Error 9 and Error 381
Error 9 and Error 63
Error 94 - Invalid Use Of Null: When Trying To Add/Edit Payroll Data
Error Message: "A previous version of [program] was not found..."
Error Message: "Not a Valid Win32 Executable"
Error Message: "Version of the application could not be determined"
Error Message: "Zip file damaged"
Error TX4OLE invalid property value 1-900
Error Using Font - There was an error using the font OCR-ACFS [Payroll System Only]
Error: "Installed Version Could Not Be Determined"
Form is missing text and/or graphics (boxes, shading and lines)
Forms print on both sides of the paper
Importing Data from the Prior Year: Only Client Demographic Data is Imported, No Client Folder Data is Imported
Install / Uninstall: Setup Runs Another Vendor's Installer
Installer's Repair option freezes on EXE files
Items "Not Saved"
MICR Font Not Installed - The MICR font necessary to print on blank check stock is not installed
Mapped network drives are not visible during installation
Message During Automatic Backup: Change Backup Location - The Specified Location Cannot Be Used For The Backup
Message that something "needs to be installed" or "is on CD"
Modules do not load and no error is displayed
Move Data Process Errors
OCR-A (or OCR-ACFS) font is not properly installed
Printing paychecks freezes Payroll System
Printouts are crunched into a small area at the top of the paper
Program Crashes Without Error Message when Printing
Program freezes after displaying Error 52: "Bad file name or number"
QBXML Query Response Error
Setup Stalls During Full Install
Still Running Old Version after Update
The top of the window is off screen
Update Setup Reports File Is Locked
Update Setup Stalls
When printing red forms all pages are blank
Your Network Data Is Read-Only
Updated by John Logue
It is very important that you keep CFS apprised of any changes in your firm name or address. Not only do we need to ensure that our mailings reach you, but your license code is determined in part by your firm name and address. If you change the firm name or address within most CFS programs, they will cease to function unless you also update the license code.
We may rely on a phone call where there is no alternative, such as on initial orders. However, we generally require changes in firm name and address be in writing. It is the only sure way to avoid communication and spelling errors.